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Technical Guide for prevention and control of Major Animal Diseases in autumn and Winter

release time:2021-09-15 Author:admin

In autumn and winter, when the weather is dry and the sunlight exposure time is short, viruses are more likely to survive, and major animal diseases and zoonoses are prone to occur and occur frequently. Therefore, it is necessary to increase the guidance for farmers and strengthen the following prevention and control measures.

First, basic immunization

Immunization is an effective means to prevent and control major animal diseases such as foot-and-mouth disease, highly pathogenic avian influenza and Peste petit Ruminant disease. In autumn, the centralized immunization of free-range households should be "exempted from all exemptions and leave no gaps" to ensure the density and quality of immunization and build an effective immune barrier. Large-scale breeding farms should formulate immunization procedures scientifically and monitor the level of immune antibodies in time to ensure the immune effect. While doing a good job in the major animal disease immunization work, overall planning to do a good job in common diseases, especially zoonosis immunization work. In areas immune to brucellosis and echinococcosis, immunization of newborn lambs should be done well. In areas where anthrax has occurred, immunization of susceptible livestock should be strengthened. Pastoral provinces should do a good job of transferring livestock autumn immunization.

2. Strengthen monitoring and investigation

Breeding personnel should strengthen the clinical examination and health monitoring of livestock and poultry, focusing on the behavior of livestock and poultry, resting state, reaction, feeding and drinking water, hair appearance and feces status. Livestock performance loss of appetite, xi lie, claudication, fever blisters which appear on the mouth, nose and mouth salivate, hoof and burst, stomatitis, eye nasal secretions increase, diarrhea, depressed birds show spirit, sleepiness, then stand, head wing droop, loss of appetite, foot scale bleeding, breathing difficulties, line of the symptom such as loose stools, and abnormal death or other abnormal condition, Samples should be collected immediately and sent for testing, and the outbreak should be reported according to procedures. Measures such as isolation and disinfection should be taken as soon as possible to prevent the spread of the epidemic and reduce the losses caused by the epidemic.

Three, strengthen cleaning and disinfection

We should strengthen environmental cleaning and disinfection and pay attention to the effect of disinfection. Different disinfectants have different degrees of sensitivity to temperature. Strong oxidizing disinfectants such as potassium bisulfate are less affected by low temperature environment, but more affected by organic matter. Aldehydes, quaternary ammonium salts and other disinfectants are more affected by low temperature environment, but less affected by organic matter. In low temperature environment, the disinfection effect can be improved by prolonging the disinfection time, increasing the disinfection concentration and frequency. In winter, disinfection should be carried out in relatively warm time. Before disinfection, do a good job of cleaning the disinfection area, and then carry out disinfection after seeing no dirt. The disinfectant can be prepared with warm water to enhance the disinfection effect. It is preferred to use low-temperature disinfectants or add alcohols such as propylene glycol, isopropyl alcohol or sodium chloride as antifreeze agents, and pay attention to the compatibility between antifreeze and disinfectant.

Iv. Strict biosafety measures

Regularly assess the level of biosafety protection in breeding farms to ensure the effective implementation of various epidemic prevention measures and systems. The farm should strictly restrict the entry and exit of irrelevant personnel, and the entry and exit of personnel should strictly implement the health system such as changing clothes and shoes, disinfection and shower. Foreign vehicles and other means of transport are not allowed to enter the farm. All vehicles and other means of transport in and out of the farm should be thoroughly cleaned and disinfected. Implement separate management of clean road and dirty road, strictly control the flow of people, vehicles, goods and animals in the yard. Before winter, rodents should be exterminated and scattered feeds cleaned to prevent birds from nesting in the site.

Five, do a good job of harmless treatment

Do not discard or discard sick or dead livestock and poultry and their excreta, padding, packaging, containers and other pollutants to prevent the spread of pathogenic microorganisms. In strict accordance with the relevant technical specifications of harmless treatment, appropriate methods should be selected for harmless treatment. Priority should be given to professional harmless treatment plants for sick and dead livestock and poultry. The transport and disposal of livestock and poultry carcasses should follow the principle of preventing pathogen diffusion and environmental pollution, and the livestock and poultry carcasses should be packed into sealed bags to ensure no leakage of liquid. Transport vehicles should be sealed and impermeable, and vehicles and related transport equipment should be thoroughly cleaned and disinfected when leaving the enclosure and burial site.

6. Key animal disease prevention and control measures in autumn and winter

1. Foot-and-mouth disease

Foot-and-mouth disease susceptible animal species, a wide range of infection pathways, infected animals in the incubation period can be detoxification, epidemic spread risk. Vaccination is an effective means for the prevention and control of foot-and-mouth disease. Scientific and reasonable immunization procedures should be formulated according to animal growth cycle, maternal antibody, vaccine efficacy, duration of immunization and epidemic status of epidemic diseases. After vaccine immunization, the level of immune antibody should be monitored in time. Samples were taken 21 days after immunization of cattle and sheep and 28 days after immunization of pigs for antibody monitoring, and the immunization program was timely supplemented or adjusted according to the monitoring results. The population immunity density of foot-and-mouth disease should be kept above 90 % all year round, and the immune density of livestock should reach 100 %. The qualified rate of immune antibody in large-scale breeding farms should reach above 80 %. Free range households should carry out centralized immunization in autumn, and timely supplement and exemption should be carried out in winter for unqualified immunized livestock and supplement livestock.

Highly pathogenic avian influenza

In autumn and winter, migratory birds are in frequent contact with poultry in southern provinces. Effective measures should be taken to strictly prevent the spread of avian influenza caused by migratory birds. Strengthen the immunity of waterfowl and free-range poultry, monitor the antibody situation in time, supplement or eliminate at any time, and construct the immune barrier. Key monitoring of poultry in areas with dense river networks will be carried out to monitor the abnormal morbidity and mortality of migratory birds. Free-range farmers should avoid mixed breeding of pigs, chickens and waterfowl, and large-scale farms should take bird prevention measures to prevent contact between poultry and migratory birds, and domestic waterfowl should avoid open-water breeding in migratory bird habitats. Strengthen the disinfection of migratory birds around the habitat, isolation and preventive measures can be taken when necessary, unified treatment of migratory bird excreta. Attention should be paid to the management of open water in zoos, wildlife farms and other places to prevent migratory birds from entering.

(3) African swine fever

Pig farms should strengthen biosafety protection measures, strictly control the entrance, strictly control the flow of people, vehicles, objects and pigs in the field. Strengthen clinical inspection. Samples should be taken at the first time once pigs are found with lethargy, no light touch, reduced feed intake, fever, skin redness, joint swelling/necrosis, cough and asthma, abdominal breathing, increased mortality rate of fattening pigs, abortion or stillbirth/mummy fetus of sows and other suspicious clinical manifestations. Daily monitoring should be carried out in a combination of nucleic acid and antibody detection, nucleic acid detection can be collected at the same time, mouth and nose swab and blood mixed sample detection, increase the detection rate. Environmental detection should focus on the collection of material trough, manure ditch, railings, fans, water curtain, manure leakage floor, drinking water fountain and other parts of the sample. Once the pig farm discovers the epidemic situation, immediately reports according to the procedure, and takes quarantine, disinfection and other measures as soon as possible to prevent the spread of the epidemic situation.

(4) Peste ruminant disease

Autumn and winter are the peak season of mutton consumption, and live sheep are frequently transported, increasing the risk of peSTE petit Ruminant epidemic. Special attention should be paid to PPR immunization, especially for newborn lambs. We will strengthen monitoring and screening to find and eliminate hidden dangers in a timely manner. Strengthen supervision over live sheep transportation, avoid live sheep transportation from high risk areas to low risk areas. The sheep for slaughtering shall be directly transported to the destination slaughterhouse for slaughtering after passing the quarantine at the place of origin, avoiding unloading or continuing to feed during the process. Live sheep are encouraged to be slaughtered nearby, transported by cold chain and put on the market chilled.

(5) Porcine reproductive and respiratory disorders syndrome

The main causes of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome in autumn and winter were high stocking density, sudden change of climate and introduction of pigs. According to the epidemic situation of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome in pig farm, immunization should be carried out scientifically and reasonably. In the positive unstable field, the live attenuated vaccine can be selected according to the current epidemic strain. Feeding management should pay attention to the ventilation of piggery, do a good job of cold insulation, reduce stress response, to control the feeding density, to avoid overcrowding pigs. Want to notice good introduce a kind to close, seminal fluid should introduce from negative piggery, introduce breed pig to want isolation first, observation, undertake virus detection, after affirmatory nucleic acid detects negative again mix group to raise.

(6) Piglet diarrhea

Autumn climate is changeable, the temperature difference between day and night is large, is the piglet diarrhea more frequently. The diarrhea caused by porcine epidemic diarrhea virus, porcine infectious gastroenteritis virus and rotavirus can be immunized to sows, so that piglets get immune antibodies. For diarrhea caused by Escherichia coli and Salmonella, sensitive drugs can be selected for drug prevention and treatment. Good prenatal prevention close, postpartum care close and weaning close. The delivery room should be thoroughly cleaned, washed, disinfected and replaced with clean bedding before delivery. Newborn piglets should pay attention to cold insulation, colostrum close, enhance the resistance of piglets. Piglets before weaning to early feed, gradually increase the feeding amount of feed, weaning should not suddenly replace feed, to limit the feeding of high protein, high carbohydrate feed, increase the content of dietary cellulose. For sick piglets should be immediately isolated to clean dry, warm piggery, strengthen nursing, timely removal of feces and pollutants, and the implementation of symptomatic treatment.

(7) zoonosis

Comprehensive prevention and control measures, such as monitoring, immunization, quarantine, purification, culling, disinfection and harmless treatment, should be carried out according to the characteristics of different zoonoses. In areas immune to brucellosis, attention should be paid to personal protection of epidemic prevention personnel, who should be equipped with protective clothing, eye masks, masks, gloves and other protective equipment. In areas where echinococcosis is prevalent, sheep immunization and dog deworming should be carried out continuously. In the slaughtering season of cattle and sheep, publicity and supervision should be strengthened to do a good job in the harmless treatment of diseased organs. Surveillance should be strengthened in old and new anthrax epidemic areas and in provinces where anthrax outbreaks occurred this year, and enhanced immunization measures should be taken when necessary. Schistosomiasis endemic provinces should do a good job in livestock inspection and control, consolidate the effectiveness of the prevention and control. It is necessary to make full use of radio, newspapers, TELEVISION, Internet and other media to publicize the types, sources of infection, transmission characteristics and dangers of local common zoonoses, improve the awareness of livestock farmers and the public to prevent zoonoses, and do a good job of self-prevention.

Source: China Veterinary Website